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Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints

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Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints
Drought resistant maize. Image credit: Flickr

Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints

Despite a shortfall of maize this year Zambia can still not import genetically modified maize.   

By Wandile Sihlobo 

Zambia’s maize production in the 2023/24 season is down by more than 50% to an estimated harvest of 1,6 million tonnes because of the intense heat wave and mid-summer drought.

The country must now import about a million tonnes of maize to meet its domestic annual needs.

The government has encouraged the private sector in the country to ramp up its effort to import maize. However, the challenge is that they want only non-genetically modified maize. Zambia still prohibits cultivating and importing genetically modified maize (GMO maize).

It is already a challenge to find white maize in the world market regardless of whether it is GMO or GMO-free, as the major producers are the Southern African region (South Africa specifically) and Mexico. Most of the world’s maize is yellow maize for animal feed.

The drought has hit the entire Southern Africa region. The Southern Africa region’s primary maize producer, South Africa, saw its harvest fall by 19% year-on-year to 13,3 million tonnes in the 2023/24 season.

Still, South Africa could have about 1,5 million tonnes for the export markets. This is both white and yellow maize.

South Africa is out of the equation when considering GMO-free maize, as the country’s maize is roughly 85% GMO. Then Zambia will have to put its faith in Mexico and Tanzania for GMO-free maize supplies.

Whether they will succeed in securing such supplies remains an open question. I am not as optimistic as these countries also face challenges in their production season.

Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints
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Consider reviewing policies (Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints)

Zambia should consider adjusting its policies and permitting the importation of GMO maize, which can be transported directly to millers if they don’t want the grain to reach farmers.

This is an approach Zimbabwe uses; thus, they are amongst the significant maize importers from South Africa.

In the medium term, however, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and many other countries in the region should consider reviewing their GMO policies. The Southern Africa region, and indeed, the African continent, must embrace technology and the newly improved seed cultivars to boost domestic production.

Admittedly, there are legitimate debates about the ownership of seeds and how smallholder farmers could struggle to obtain seeds in some developing countries.

These are realities that policymakers in African countries should manage regarding reaching agreements with seed breeders and technology developers but not closing off innovation.

Technology developers also need to be mindful of these concerns when engaging with various governments in African countries.

Increased yields (Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints)

South Africa is the only exception that has embraced genetically modified crops since the 2001/02 season. The country has also enjoyed improvements in yields and is now a leading producer of grains in the region.

For example, according to the data from the International Grains Council, South Africa produces about 16% of sub-Saharan maize, utilising a relatively small area of an average of 2.5 million hectares since 2010.

In contrast, countries such as Nigeria planted 6.5 million hectares in the same production season but only harvested 11 million tonnes of maize, equating to 15% of the sub-Saharan region’s maize output.

Irrigation has been an added factor in South Africa, but not to a large extent, as only 10% of the country’s maize is irrigated, with 90% being rainfed, making it similar to other African countries.

Notably, although the yields are also influenced by improved germplasm (enabled by non-genetically modified biotechnology) and improved low and no-till production methods (facilitated through herbicide-tolerant genetically modified technology), other benefits of genetically modified seeds include labour savings and reduced insecticide use as well as enhanced weed and pest control.

Hence, with the African continent currently struggling to meet its annual food needs, using technology, genetically modified seeds, and other means should be an avenue to explore to boost production.

Embrace technology (Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints)

In essence, many African governments should reevaluate their regulatory standards and embrace technology.

In the case of Zambia, we are now at an appropriate time for such reform, and the government must embrace change for the good of farmers and consumers.

Zambia should take advantage of the available maize surplus in South Africa by adjusting its policies and permitting imports.

Failure to do so will not necessarily hurt the South African farmers, as they will still have robust demand from Zimbabwe and continue to export there and other world regions such as the Far East.

The people who will be at a loss are the Zambian consumers who have to be content with reduced maize supplies at higher prices.

A rethink of the seed policies is long overdue in the long term. The improved seed cultivars are part of the technologies that will help Africa’s agriculture adapt to climate change. Therefore, governments should think of it that way.

Wandile Sihlobo is the Chief Economist of the Agricultural Business Chamber of South Africa (Agbiz) and the author of two books, “A Country of Two Agricultures: The Disparities, The Challenges, The Solutions” and “Finding Common Ground: Land, Equity and Agriculture“.

He is a Senior Lecturer Extraordinary at the Department of Agricultural Economics at Stellenbosch University. Sihlobo is also a Visiting Research Fellow at the Wits School of Governance, University of the Witwatersrand, and a Research Associate at the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at Rhodes University.

Sihlobo was appointed as a member of President Cyril Ramaphosa’s Presidential Economic Advisory Council in 2019 (and re-appointed in 2022), having served on the Presidential Expert Advisory Panel on Land Reform and Agriculture from 2018.

Wandile is a regular contributor to the WhyAfrica magazine.

You can follow Wandile on X (@WandileSihlobo)

Zambia needs GMO maize

Zambia’s agricultural policy constraints
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