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Preparing for extreme weather

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Preparing for extreme weather
Extreme rainfall has battered parts of Southern and East Africa over the last few years. Image credit: Casy Horner from Unsplash

Preparing for extreme weather

Extreme weather events are becoming more intense and more frequent across Africa.

Strategies are needed to prepare for and adapt to extreme climate and weather events. Out of season occurrences have been battering parts of Africa over the last few years.

According to CSIR senior researcher Dr Neville Sweijd extreme events such as floods, droughts, wildfires, extreme wind and storm surges are becoming more frequent, with increased intensity, longer durations and out of typical seasonal periods. Dr Sweijd is also the Director of the Alliance for Collaboration on Climate and Earth Systems Science (ACCESS) programme.

“Climate change manifests in various ways. It’s not just a gradual shift in weather patterns, as statistics might suggest.

“It manifests as periodic unprecedented extremes in temperature, rainfall and other climatic aspects. People don’t perceive climate change as a simple average of weather conditions over time. Rather, they experience it as weather impacts, such as heatwaves that break long-held temperature records or extreme rainfall leading to flooding.

“These severe events serve as stark reminders of climate change’s significant impacts, underlining its urgency and the necessity for coordinated action to adapt to its devastating effects,” he says.

Preparing for extreme weather
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Impact on livelihoods (Preparing for extreme weather)

Climate experts agree that extreme climate and weather phenomena pose a clear and immediate threat to societies in several ways. They impact human lives and livelihoods.

From deadly hurricanes and cyclones to strong heatwaves and lengthy droughts, these occurrences cause devastation, resulting in loss of life, community displacement and infrastructure damage.

Such occurrences not only endanger individuals but also increase pre-existing vulnerabilities, disproportionately harming marginalised populations that often lack the resources to prepare for or recover from disasters fully.

“Extreme events pose a threat to our societies as they can alter ecosystems, destroy infrastructure and cause loss of lives and livelihoods.

“Therefore, it is very important for us to examine the scientific drivers of these events, as well as develop tools for early warning, and plan for the appropriate responses, both in anticipation of these extreme events and during and after they occur,” says Professor Guy Midgley from Stellenbosch University.

Extreme events around the world (Preparing for extreme weather)

Extreme weather events have become an almost regular occurrence in Africa in recent years. These events included the 2015 – 2018 Day Zero drought in the Western Cape, the Knysna Fires of 2018 and the Durban Floods of 2022, also in South Africa.

Parts of East Africa, especially Kenya and Tanzania, experienced flooding and above average rainfall this year, while severe drought has affected countries like Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi.

Globally, there have been occurrences such as the 2022 Pakistan floods, and wildfires in California and Australia,

The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Extraordinary Summit was held on 20 May in Luanda, Angola to launch the SADC Humanitarian Appeal. The SADC plan is seeking USD5.5-billion to assist more than 56.6 million people with urgent multi-sector humanitarian assistance, due to the effects of the 2023/24 El Niño.

“The International Panel on Climate Change, in its latest Assessment Report 6 ‘’ dedicated an entire chapter to focus on this issue and noted that the trends are that these events are set to intensify under various climate change scenarios,” says Sweijd.

“This is a particular problem in developing countries where there are large under-serviced and poorer sectors of the population that are more vulnerable to the impact of extreme events and is an area where governments need to quickly improve their capacity to save lives and livelihoods.”

Early warning systems in place (Preparing for extreme weather)

Dr Johan Stander, Director at the United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO says that the WMO recognises that extreme climate events are a key impact of a changing climate.

The organisation is working with member states on several programmes and projects to equip counterparts with the knowledge and frameworks to implement actions for developing early warning systems and mitigating these events.

Dr Dawn Mahlobo from the South African Weather Service (SAWS) says that the SAWS has several mechanisms and early warning systems in place for extreme weather, which have worked well in various instances.

However, specific information applicable for various sectors of the economy such as shipping, infrastructure, mining, aviation, agriculture and housing needs to be developed, and for this, SAWS is implementing the National Framework for Climate Services.

Climate experts from around the world gathered at Stellenbosch University recently to discuss aspects of extreme climate and weather events and strategies to prepare and adapt to them more effectively.

The international conference, themed “Integrated Responses to the Intensification of Extreme Climate and Weather Events in Developing Economies,” was co-sponsored by the School for Climate Studies at Stellenbosch University, the Alliance for Collaboration on Climate and Earth Systems Science (ACCESS) programme hosted at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), in collaboration with two international partners, the Scientific Committee on Problems in the Environment (SCOPE) and the Non-Aligned Movement Science and Technology Centre (NAM S&T). The conference was attended by about 120 local and international delegates.

Preparing for extreme weather

Preparing for extreme weather
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AgricultureEnvironmental Management & Climate ChangeEnergyESGInfrastructureMiningPolitical EconomyTourism and ConservationWater Management