19 November 2020 – Climate change is adding to the growing number of risks faced by mining companies. Addressing climate change risks has become a priority in the mining industry.
Climate change needs to be factored into planning decisions right from the pre-feasibility stage of projects. Water management, for example, is becoming more complex as rainfall patterns in many areas start to change in frequency and intensity.
According to Philippa Burmeister, principal scientist at SRK Consulting, this affects the management of a mine’s surface and groundwater resources, as well as biodiversity and wetland management. “It has implications for infrastructure design, as it raises the risk of flooding, water insecurity and environmental damage,” says Burmeister.
Water and tailings dam design
As an example, Burmeister highlighted the importance of water balance as a key aspect of tailings dam design. Here, historical rainfall data is a crucial part of the information necessary to ensure dams’ safe operation in the long term.
“As rainfall variability and intensity change, the historical data becomes less reliable in guiding design parameters,” she says. “Operations generally are more likely to be disrupted due to severe weather events like floods or droughts. For instance, heavier storm events may increase water volumes seeping into mine workings, requiring more pumping capacity.”
According to Ashleigh Maritz, senior environmental scientist at SRK Consulting, climate change is also likely to affect the livelihood resilience of mining communities.
“As temperatures and rainfall patterns change, traditional forms of livelihood could be threatened, making communities more reliant on the mines for income and corporate social investment,” says Maritz. “The way that a mine engages with their stakeholders and supports communities is therefore critical, as it is vital to maintaining its social licence to operate,” adds Maritz.
Maritz says that an important outcome of climate change is likely to be scarcity of precious resources like water – which could set mines in direct competition with local communities. Rising average temperatures in some regions may also lead to the geographic spread of communicable diseases like malaria – which may affect employees and surrounding communities.
Impacts on public infrastructure will also have a knock-on effect for mines. More frequent flooding or drought will change municipalities’ planning and investment in water supply or stormwater facilities. This may disadvantage the mines or affect mines’ social license to operate.
“This will demand not just a technical solution but careful relationship building, so that platforms are created for collaborative and long-term answers with buy-in from all stakeholders,” says Maritz.
Risk and compliance
According to Burmeister mining clients are increasingly cognisant of climate change risk. “Industry standards are evolving – even in advance of national standards or requirements. With financial institutions also seeing the potential risks to their investments posed by climate change, they are increasingly stipulating that climate change issues are addressed in planning studies for mining projects,” she says.
To effectively address the varied risks that accompany climate change, she emphasises that solutions need to be integrated. “In other words, technical input must be coordinated across a range of professional disciplines. It is crucial that climate change impacts be ‘mainstreamed’ into various technical disciplines if it is to be effectively addressed,” she says.
“Our philosophy at SRK is that climate change must be considered by all disciplines in the project team. This includes expertise in various facets of engineering, as well as in the natural and social sciences,” she adds.
SRK uses a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate clients’ exposure to climate change risk. These include measuring the project’s greenhouse gas emissions as part of its environmental impact assessment and applying climate change models to identify specific project risks posed by predicted changes in climatic conditions.
Innovating for sustainability
“By integrating SRK’s professional input, we ensure not only that clients are compliant with regulations, but that the many and varied risks of climate change are addressed in their projects. This makes them more sustainable and robust in the longer term,” says Burmeister.
Maritz notes that the science of climate change modelling is relatively young, leading the company to take an adaptive and dynamic approach – while leveraging off partnerships to develop and apply the power of predictive modelling.
“This assists us in pioneering strategies and tools to manage climate change risks, from initial mine design and operational technical inputs through to social transitioning and mine closure. While monitoring is being undertaken extensively at most mine sites, the interpretation of the data is critical to identifying trends that could prevent undesirable events,” she says.
Digital and data
A key concern for SRK has been the development of better data processing and analysis capacity for the considerable mine data that is already available. This helps guide decision-making around climate change and the risks it poses.
SRK recently established a dedicated data services unit that works closely with the climate change team to leverage and evolve the latest digital technologies. For instance, as part of an innovation project, the team is developing an interactive mining map of South Africa; this provides a coordinated source of geo-located data on various aspects and stages of mining.
SRK is also looking at developing site-specific climate change-related rainfall models for its mining clients, to better inform their project and operational planning. To support its ongoing innovation efforts, the company holds an annual innovation conference that fosters collaboration between specialists and opens doors to valuable applications.